Early Protective Role of Inflammation in Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure: Focus on TNFα and Resident Macrophages. Sophie Besse, Sophie Nadaud, Elise Balse, Catherine Pavoine.Cells 2022,11(7),1249.
Cardiac hypertrophy, initiated by a variety of physiological or pathological stimuli (hemodynamic or hormonal stimulation or infarction), is a critical early adaptive compensatory response of the heart. The structural basis of the progression from compensated hypertrophy to pathological hypertrophy and heart failure is still largely unknown. In most cases, early activation of an inflammatory program reflects a reparative or protective response to other primary injurious processes. Later on, regardless of the underlying etiology, heart failure is always associated with both local and systemic activation of inflammatory signaling cascades. Cardiac macrophages are nodal regulators of inflammation. Resident macrophages mostly attenuate cardiac injury by secreting cytoprotective factors (cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors), scavenging damaged cells or mitochondrial debris, and regulating cardiac conduction, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and fibrosis. In contrast, excessive recruitment of monocyte-derived inflammatory macrophages largely contributes to the transition to heart failure. The current review examines the ambivalent role of inflammation (mainly TNFα-related) and cardiac macrophages (Mφ) in pathophysiologies from non-infarction origin, focusing on the protective signaling processes. Our objective is to illustrate how harnessing this knowledge could pave the way for innovative therapeutics in patients with heart failure.
Keywords: inflammation; TNFα; resident macrophages; monocyte-derived macrophages; adaptive cardiac remodeling; heart failure; aging.